Who are the Market Participants ?

Exporters

This group consists of many of New Zealand's largest companies. Within group you find a diverse range of companies exporting goods and services from New Zealand to the rest of the world. New Zealand's export volumes give an excellent indication of the volumes of foreign exchange transacted by the sub sets of this group with resource sector companies taking centre stage. In general exporters have a positive impact on the value of the New Zealand Dollar.

Importers

This group of companies and individuals uses the foreign exchange markets to purchase foreign currency to make payments for the goods and services they have bought in other countries. In general they have a negative impact on the value of the New Zealand Dollar.

New Zealand Fund Managers

This industry has burgeoned over the last two decades underpinned by a regulatory environment that encourages private household saving. The net effect of the group depends on the investment decisions they make but in general as the industry grows they have been investing heavily offshore which generates a negative impact on the New Zealand Dollar. However they can hedge these investments which often sees them enter the market as buyers of forwards contracts and options.

Global Fund Managers

This group's influence changes depending on their interest in New Zealand asset markets. During periods where New Zealand stocks and bonds are attractive, New Zealand gets substantial allocations of global capital which drives up the value of the New Zealand Dollar. However when they wish to hedge existing investments in New Zealand this can generate selling flows.

Central Banks

In New Zealand the Reserve bank of New Zealand generally lets the market determine the value of the New Zealand Dollar however there are a few exceptions to this policy. Firstly the Reserve bank of New Zealand will intervene to buy or sell New Zealand Dollars if they believe it is substantially under or overvalued and that it is having a negative effect on the economy.

Other Government Agencies

Many government agencies have foreign exchange risk either as exporters, importers or borrowers.

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